|Parameter||What it is||Ideal Value||How to Correct||Notes
|pH||Measure of the hydrogen ion concentration of the water. Values under 7 are considered acidic, values over 7 are considered alkaline.||7.2 - 7.8 for Koi / 6.8 - 7.6 for Goldfish
Up or pH
||Check pH at same time each day. It will always be lower in the morning. In general it is better to allow fish to adjust to the pH of your water rather than adjusting pH. The key with pH is stability rather than a specific value. Ammonia is more toxic in water with a high pH.|
|Ammonia||Excreted from fish gills, also product of organic decomposition||0
||Partial water change, Ammonia
Remover, or bind with AmmoLock.
Long-term – greater filtration.
||Possible symptom of too many fish or inadequate filtration. If nitrogen cycle is not functioning well, addition of NiteOut can help.|
|Nitrite||Produced by biological breakdown of ammonia||0
||Partial water change. Long-term – greater filtration.
||Possible sign that filtration is not cycling properly. If nitrogen cycle is not functioning well, addition of NiteOut can help.|
|Nitrate||Produced by biological breakdown of nitrite||Preferably less than 20 ppm
||Partial water change. Long-term – more plants.
||Nitrate is utilized by plant life. Only toxic to fish in high concentrations (over 150ppm).
|KH||Alkalinity - measurement of carbonate and bi-carbonate in the water||50-150 ppm
||Raise with SapHGuard,
lower with partial water change.
||Proper alkalinity helps maintain stable pH. |
|GH||General Hardness - measurement of Calcium and Magnesium in the water||50-150 ppm|| ||This is not a critical aspect of pond water chemistry. Adjustments to GH are not usually required.
|Phosphate||A salt of phosphoric acid||Less than 0.3 ppm
||Partial water change or PhosOut
||Phosphates are important and needed by both plants and fish. Excess phosphates can lead to an algae bloom.
|Chlorine/Chloramine||Tap water additives||0
||Always use a dechlorinator when adding tap water.
|Salinity||Measure of dissolved salt concentration in the water.||Depends on Use
||Water Change if High, Add Pond
Salt if low
||See our article on pond salt for more information.|